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American Speech-Language Hearing Association is on board!

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2002). Knowledge and skills for speech-language pathologists performing endoscopic assessment of swallowing functions [Knowledge and Skills]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). The role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: technical report [Technical Report]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004). Role of the speech-language pathologist in the performance and interpretation of endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: guidelines [Guidelines]. Available from www.asha.org/policy.

How good is FEES, and how does it compare to VFSS/MBS?

Leder, S. B., Sasaki, C. T., & Burrell, M. I. (1998). Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Dysphagia to Identify Silent Aspiration. Dysphagia, 13(1), 19-21.

Kelly, A. M., Drinnan, M. J., & Leslie, P. (2007). Assessing penetration and aspiration: How do Videofluoroscopy and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing compare? The Laryngoscope, 117(10), 1723-1727.

Madden, C., Fenton, J., Hughes, J., & Timon, C. (2000). Comparison between videofluoroscopy and milk-swallow endoscopy in the assessment of swallowing function. Clinical Otolaryngology, 25(6), 504-506.

Rao N., Brady, S. L., Chaudhuri, G., Donselli J. J., & Wesling, M. W. (2003). Gold-standard? Analysis of the videofluoroscopic and fiberoptic endoscopic swallow examinations. Journal of Applied Research, 3(1), 89-96.

Leder, S. B., Sasaki, C. T., & Burrell, M. I. (1998). Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Dysphagia to Identify Silent Aspiration. Dysphagia, 13(1), 19-21.

Mu, C.H., Hsiao, T.Y., Chen, J.C., Chang, Y.C., &Lee, S.Y. (1997). Evaluation of swallowing safety with fiberoptic endoscope: Comparison with video fluoroscopic technique. Laryngoscope, 107, 396-401.

Langmore, S.E., Schatz, K., & Olsen, N. (1991). Endoscopic and video fluoroscopic evaluations of swallowing and aspiration. Annals of Otalgia, Rhinology & Laryngology. 100(8), 678-681.

Bastian R. Video endoscopic evaluation of patients with dysphagia: an adjunct to the modified barium swallow. Otolaryngol-Head & Neck Surg 1991; 104(3):339-50.

Crary, M.A., Baron, J. (1997) Endoscopic and Fluoroscopic Evaluations of Swallowing: Comparison of Observed and Inferred Findings. Dysphagia, 12(2).

In the nose? How Comfortable Is FEES?

Singh, V., Brockbank, M.J., Todd, G.B. Flexible transnasal endoscopy: is local anesthetic necessary? Journal of Laryngology and Otology. July 1997;111:616-618.

Leder, S.B., Ross, D.A., Briskin, K.B., Sasaki, C.T. A prospective, double-blind, randomized study on the use of a topical anesthetic, vasoconstrictor, and placebo during transnasal flexible fiberoptic endoscopy. Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research. 1997;40:1352-1357.

OK it may not hurt, but is FEES safe?

"When (Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallow with Sensory Testing) FEESST is performed…by properly trained clinicians, the incidence of complications is practically nonexistent." –Aviv

Aviv, J.E., Murray, T., Zschommler, A., Cohen, M., Gartner, C. Flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: patient characteristics and analysis of safety in 1340 consecutive examinations. Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology. 2005;114:173-176.

Cohen, M.A., Setzen, M., Perlman, P.W., Ditkoff, M., Mattucci, K.F., Guss, J. The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing in an outpatient otolaryngology setting. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:21-24.

Aviv, J.E., Kaplan, S.T., Thompson, J.E., Spitzer, J., Diamond, B., Close, L.G. The safety of flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing with sensory testing: an analysis of 500 consecutive evaluations. Dysphagia. 2000;15:39-44.

FEES sounds amazing. Can it even help reduce hospital re admissions?

Mor, V., Intrator, O., Feng, Z., & Grabowski, D. C. (2010). The Revolving Door of Rehospitalization From Skilled Nursing Facilities. Health Affairs (Project Hope), 29(1), 57–64. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2009.0629

Coleman EA, Min S, Chomiak A, Kramer AM. "Post-Hospital Care Transitions: Patterns, Complications, and Risk Identification." Health Services Research 2004:37(5):1423-1440.

Donelan-McCall, N., T. Eilertsen, R. Fish, and A. Kramer. 2006. Small Patient Pop- ulation and Low Frequency Event Effects on the Stability of SNF Quality Measures. Washington, DC: MedPAC.

Additional and Handy Resources

Splaingard, M. L., Hutchins, B., Sulton, L. D., & Chaudhuri, G. (1988). Aspiration in rehabilitation patients: videofluoroscopy vs bedside clinical assessment. Arch.Phys.Med.Rehabil., 69(8), 637-640.

BASSI, Daiane et al. Identification of risk groups for oropharyngeal dysphagia in hospitalized patients in a university hospital. CoDAS [online]. 2014, vol.26, n.1 [cited 2015-01-12], pp. 17-27 . Available from: <http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php? script=sci_arttext&pid=S2317-17822014000100017&lng=en&nrm=iso>. ISSN 2317-1782. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S2317-17822014000100004.

Supraglottic and pharyngeal sensory abnormalities in stroke patients with dysphagia. J. E. Aviv, J. H. Martin, R. L. Sacco, D. Zagar, B. Diamond, M. S. Keen, A. Blitzer Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996 February; 105(2): 92–97.

Teasell R, Foley N, Fisher J, Finestone H. The incidence, management, and complications of dysphagia in patients with medullary strokes admitted to a rehabilitation unit. Dysphagia. 2002; 17: 115–120.

Links to Other Great Websites

American Speech-Hearing and Language Association

The Role of the Speech-Language Pathologist in the Performance and Interpretation of Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing

All things Dysphagia: Lit Reviews, Clinician Resources and Patient Handouts

FEES Guru, Susan Langmore, PhD’s resource site

Ashli O'Rourke, M.D. Professor, Evelyn Trammell Institute for Voice and Swallowing, discussing “Beyond the Modified Barium Swallow: Alternative and Complimentary Instrumental Assessments of Swallowing.”

Article from, "GI Motility online, a unique, comprehensive resource on the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. Edited by Raj Goyal, M.D. and Reza Shaker, M.D., and with contributions from leading international experts, GI Motility online provides in-depth review articles, easily-assimilable overviews, case studies for self-learning, and 'How To' carry out important motility investigations.”

ASHA’s Blog Gives Us 7 Clues to Keep An Eye Out For in a Patient’s Medical Chart… Step 1!

PDFs Available for Download right HERE!